National Entrance Test of English for MA/MS Candidates (NETEM)
Section I Use of English
Read the following text. Choose the best word (s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
Could a hug a day keep the doctor away? The answer may be a resounding “yes!” _1_ helping you feel close and _2_ to people you care about, it turns out that hugs can bring a _3_ of health benefits to your body and mind. Believe it or not, a warm embrace might even help you _4_ getting sick this winter.
In a recent study _5_ over 400 health adults, researchers from Carnegie Mellon University in Pennsylvania examined the effects of perceived social support and the receipt of hugs _6_ the participants’ susceptibility to developing the common cold after being _7_ to the virus .People who perceived greater social support were less likely to come _8_ with a cold ,and the researchers _9_ that the stress-reducing effects of hugging _10_ about 32 percent of that beneficial effect. _11_ among those who got a cold, the ones who felt greater social support and received more frequent hugs had less severe _12_ .
“Hugging protects people who are under stress from the _13_ risk for colds that’s usually _14_ with stress,” notes Sheldon Cohen, a professor of psychology at Carnegie. Hugging “is a marker of intimacy and helps _15_ the feeling that others are there to help _16_ difficulty.”
Some experts _17_ the stress-reducing , health-related benefits of hugging to the release of oxytocin, often called “the bonding hormone” _18_ it promotes attachment in relationships, including that between mother and their newborn babies. Oxytocin is made primarily in the central lower part of the brain , and some of it is released the bloodstream. But some of it _19_ in the brain, where it _20_ mood, behavior and physiology.
1.[A] Unlike [B] Besides [C] Despite [D] Throughout
【解析】答案为B。根据本句句内逻辑关系，“it turns out that hugs…”说明拥抱还有其他结果。因此，前文的逻辑关系应该为“除此以外”。
2.[A] connected [B] restricted [C] equal [D] inferior
【解析】答案为A。本题实为逻辑关系题。根据句子前后结构“helping you feel close and ______(2)”，我们可以判断，由于空格处与前面内容通过and连接，说明我们要选择一个单词与feel close同义，并且要与后面介词to 连用。因此，通过对于四个选项含义判断，选项A有“关联的”含义最为符合。
3.[A] choice [B] view [C] lesson [D] host
【解析】答案为D。此题为固定搭配。“a host of”表示大量的。其他选项搭配不合理。
4.[A] recall [B] forget [C] avoid [D] keep
【解析】答案为C。根据题干信息“a warm embrace might even help you ______(4)getting sick this winter.”中，出现“even”，表示“甚至”，说明此句话与上一句话存在递进的逻辑关系。上一句话的语义表示“拥抱可以带来大量的好处”，因此，这句话也应该表示拥抱的好处。选项C“避免生病”最符合文意。
5.[A] collecting [B] involving [C] guiding [D] affecting
6.[A] of [B] in [C] at [D] on
【解析】答案为D。本题为固定搭配。根据句义“examined the effects of perceived social support and the receipt of hugs______(6)the participants'…”考查固定搭配“examined the effects…on sth”。
7.[A] devoted [B] exposed [C] lost [D] attracted
【解析】答案为B。根据句义“common cold after being______(7)to the virus.”，可知选项B：暴露在细菌中，符合文意。
8.[A] across [B] along [C] down [D] out
9.[A] calculated [B] denied [C] doubted [D] imagined
【解析】答案为A。本题为动词与宾语从句搭配问题。根据原文“the researchers______(9)that the stress-reducing effects of hugging ______(10)about 32 percent of that beneficial effect.”动作的主语是“研究人员”，连接后面的宾语从句“拥抱减小压力的作用”，并且有数据支撑。宾语从句部分应为研究人员计算推测出的结果。
10.[A] served [B] required [C] restored [D] explained
【解析】答案为D。本题为动词含义考查。根据文章内容，“the stress-reducing effects of hugging ______(10)about 32 percent of that beneficial effect.”本题同样考查研究人员做出的研究结果，选项D“解释”符合语境要求。
11.[A] Even [B] Still [C] Rather [D] Thus
12.[A] defeats [B] symptoms [C] tests [D] errors
【解析】答案为B。形容词与名词搭配问题。根据语境“the ones who felt greater social support and received more frequent hugs had less severe______(12)”所选词要与severe构成合理搭配，再结合前文语境是关于对于拥抱实验的结果。因此，正确选项为B。
13.[A] minimized [B] highlighted [C] controlled [D] increased
【解析】答案为D。本题为形容词修饰。根据原文“Hugging protects people who are under stress from the ______(13)risk for colds that's usually ______(14)with stress”，需要选择一个形容词来修饰risk。选项D：增加的风险，更符合原文语境。
14.[A] equipped [B] associated [C] presented [D] compared
15.[A] assess [B] moderate [C] generate [D] record
【解析】答案为C。此题考查动宾搭配。根据原文“Hugging is a marker of intimacy and help ______(15)the feeling…”，需要选择一个动词能够和后文的“the feeling”搭配。
16.[A] in the face of [B] in the form of
[C] in the way of [D] in the name of
【解析】答案为A。此题为短语搭配题。A. in the face of，意思为：面对。结合文章语境，“面对困难”搭配最为合理。
17.[A] transfer [B] commit [C] attribute [D] return
【解析】答案为C。此题为固定搭配题。即：attribute sth to sth。
18.[A] because [B] unless [C] though [D] until
【解析】答案为A。此题为逻辑关系题。原文语境：“often called "the bonding hormone"______(18)it promotes attachment in relationships”从本句来看，前后文属于因果逻辑关系。
19.[A] emerges [B] vanishes [C] remains [D] decreases
【解析】答案为C。本题为动词辨析。语境信息“But some of it ______(19)in the brain”，选项C表示它仍然在大脑里存在，最符合文章要求。
20.[A] experiences [B] combines [C] justifies [D]influences
【解析】答案为D。本题为动词辨析。根据原文语境，“where it ______(20)mood, behavior and physiology.”能够搭配后面并列的三个宾语“情绪、行为、和生理”，只有D“影响”。
Section II Reading Comprehension
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)
First two hours , now three hours—this is how far in advance authorities are recommending people show up to catch a domestic flight , at least at some major U.S. airports with increasingly massive security lines.
Americans are willing to tolerate time-consuming security procedures in return for increased safety. The crash of Egypt Air Flight 804,which terrorists may have downed over the Mediterranean Sea ,provides another tragic reminder of why. But demanding too much of air travelers or providing too little security in return undermines public support for the process. And it should: Wasted time is a drag on Americans’ economic and private lives, not to mention infuriating.
Last year, the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) found in a secret check that undercover investigators were able to sneak weapons---both fake and real—past airport security nearly every time they tried .Enhanced security measures since then, combined with a rise in airline travel due to the improving Chicago’s O’Hare International .It is not yet clear how much more effective airline security has become—but the lines are obvious.
Part of the issue is that the government did not anticipate the steep increase in airline travel , so the TSA is now rushing to get new screeners on the line. Part of the issue is that airports have only so much room for screening lanes. Another factor may be that more people are trying to overpack their carry-on bags to avoid checked-baggage fees, though the airlines strongly dispute this.
There is one step the TSA could take that would not require remodeling airports or rushing to hire: Enroll more people in the PreCheck program. PreCheck is supposed to be a win-win for travelers and the TSA. Passengers who pass a background check are eligible to use expedited screening lanes. This allows the TSA wants to enroll 25 million people in PreCheck.
It has not gotten anywhere close to that, and one big reason is sticker shock. Passengers must pay $85 every five years to process their background checks. Since the beginning, this price tag has been PreCheck’s fatal flaw. Upcoming reforms might bring the price to a more reasonable level. But Congress should look doing so directly, by helping to finance PreCheck enrollment or to cut costs in other ways.
The TSA cannot continue diverting resources underused PreCheck lanes while most of the traveling public suffers in unnecessary lines. It is long past time to make the program work.
21. The crash of Egypt Air Flight 804 is mentioned to______.
[A] stress the urgency to strengthen security worldwide
[B] explain American’s tolerance of current security checks
[C] highlight the necessity of upgrading major U.S. Airports
[D] emphasize the importance of privacy protection
【解析】答案为B。细节题。根据关键词EgyptAir Flight 804定位到第二段。该关键词所在句为本段第二句，第一句为段落中心句，意为“美国人乐意忍受费时的安全程序作为加强安全的回报”，选项B中security checks是原文security procedures的同义替换，故选项B正确。
22. Which of the following contributes to long waits at major airports?
[A] New restrictions on carry-on bags.
[B] The declining efficiency of the TSA.
[C] An increase in the number of travelers.
[D] Frequent unexpected secret checks.
【解析】答案为C。细节题。根据关键词long waits at major airports定位到第二段。关键词所在句Enhanced security measures, combined with a rise in the airline travel have resulted in long waits at major airports中的have resulted in是题干contributes to 的同义词，根据此句可知，排长队的原因有两个：增强的安全措施和航空旅行的增加，选项C中an increase in the number of travelers(旅客人数的增加)是对航空旅行的增加的同义替换，航空旅行增加意味着旅客人数的增加，故选项C正确。
23. The word “expedited”(Line 4, Para. 5) is closest in meaning to ____.
24. One problem with the PreCheck program is _______.
[A] a dramatic reduction of its scale
[B] its wrongly-directed implementation
[C] the government’s reluctance to back it
[D] an unreasonable price for enrollment
【解析】答案为D。细节题。题干问的是“预先安检项目的一个问题是什么”，第六段中出现了PreCheck's fatal flaw，其中flaw是题干中problem的同义替换，故将答案定位至该词组所在句，该句意为“这个价格一直是预先安检的致命缺陷”，所以“预先安检项目的一个问题”是价格问题，故选项D正确。
25. Which of the following would be the best title for the text ?
[A] Getting Stuck in Security Lines
[B] PreCheck – a Belated Solution
[C] Less Screening for More Safety
[D] Underused PreCheck Lanes
【解析】答案为B。主旨题。题干问本文最好的题目是哪一个?文章第一段指出乘飞机的现象：随着机场大规模安全航线的增加，乘客提前到达机场的时间变得越来越长。第二段指出美国人乐意忍受费时的安全程序作为加强安全的回报。第三段提出由于加强了安全措施，机场登机的效率变得很低。第四段分析造成第三段的现象的原因：政府没有预料飞机旅行的陡增。第五段给出对策：使更多的人加入到预安检项目。第六段分析具体介绍加入这一项目的流程并指出其缺陷：价格不合理。第七段指出预安检项目实施前景不客观，指出等到这个项目起作用很长时间已经过去了，即具有“来迟的”的特点。纵观全文，文章围绕PreCheck展开，指出了其缺陷，并给与了作者的评价：等到这个项目起作用很长时间已经过去了。纵观四个选项，选项B PreCheck--a Belated Solution(预安检——一个迟来的解决方案)符合文章主旨。
“The ancient Hawaiians were astronomers,” wrote Queen Liliuokalani, Hawaii’s last reigning monarch, in 1897. Star watchers were among the most esteemed members of Hawaiian society. Sadly, all is not well with astronomy in Hawaii today. Protests have erupted over construction of the Thirty Meter Telescope(TMT), a giant observatory that promises to revolutionize humanity’s view of the cosmos.
At issue is the TMT’s planned location on Mauna Kea, a dormant volcano worshiped by some Hawaiians as the piko , that connects the Hawaiian Islands to the heavens. But Mauna Kea is also home to some of the world’s most powerful telescopes. Rested in the Pacific Ocean, Mauna Kea’s peak rises above the bulk of our planet’s dense atmosphere, where conditions allow telescopes to obtain images of unsurpassed clarity.
Opposition to telescopes on Mauna Kea is nothing new. A small but vocal group of Hawaiians and environments have long viewed their presence as disrespect for sacred land and a painful reminder of the occupation of what was once a sovereign nation.
Some blame for the current controversy belongs to astronomers. In their eagerness to build bigger telescopes, they forgot that science is the only way of understanding the world. They did not always prioritize the protection of Mauna Kea’s fragile ecosystems or its holiness to the island’s inhabitants. Hawaiian culture is not a relic of the past; it is a living culture undergoing a renaissance today.
Yet science has a cultural history, too, with roots going back to the dawn of civilization. The same curiosity to find what lies beyond the horizon that first brought early Polynesians to Hawaii’s shores inspires astronomers today to explore the heavens. Calls to disassemble all telescopes on Mauna Kea or to ban future development there ignore the reality that astronomy and Hawaiian culture both seek to answer big questions about who we are, where we come from and where we are going. Perhaps that is why we explore the starry skies, as if answering a primal calling to know ourselves and our true ancestral homes.
The astronomy community is making compromises to change its use of Mauna Kea. The TMT site was chosen to minimize the telescope’s visibility around the island and to avoid archaeological and environmental impact. To limit the number of telescopes on Mauna Kea, old ones will be removed at the end of their lifetimes and their sites returned to a natural state. There is no reason why everyone cannot be welcomed on Mauna Kea to embrace their cultural heritage and to study the stars.
26. Queen Liliuokalani’s remark in Paragraph 1 indicates ______.
[A] its conservative view on the historical role of astronomy.
[B] the importance of astronomy in ancient Hawaiian society.
[C] the regrettable decline of astronomy in ancient times.
[D] her appreciation of star watchers’ feats in her time.
【解析】答案为B。细节题。根据题干关键词Queen Liliuokalani定位在第一段第一句话“The ancient Hawaiians were astronomers”，意为“古老的夏威夷人都是天文学家”。这句话暗示的内容就是选项B：天文学在古老的夏威夷社会的重要性。
27. Mauna Kea is deemed as an ideal astronomical site due to ______.
[A] its geographical features
[B] its protective surroundings.
[C] its religious implications.
[D] its existing infrastructure.
【解析】答案为A。细节题。根据关键词Mauna Kea定位到第二段。该段指出Mauna Kea是连接夏威夷岛和天堂的地方，是世界上最强大的望远镜所在地，其峰顶条件允许望远镜获得非凡的清晰度。所以答案是选项A：它的地理特征。
28. The construction of the TMT is opposed by some locals partly because ______.
[A] it may risk ruining their intellectual life.
[B] it reminds them of a humiliating history.
[C] their culture will lose a chance of revival.
[D] they fear losing control of Mauna Kea.
【解析】答案为B。细节题。根据题干关键词opposed定位到第三段。选项B中的reminds them of与原文a reminder of是同义词，选项B中的humiliating与原文painful是同义词，选项B中的history是对原文the occupation of what was once a sovereign nation的高度概括与总结。
29. It can be inferred from Paragraph 5 that progress in today’s astronomy ______.
[A] is fulfilling the dreams of ancient Hawaiians.
[B] helps spread Hawaiian culture across the world.
[C] may uncover the origin of Hawaiian culture.
[D] will eventually soften Hawaiians’ hostility.
30. The author’s attitude toward choosing Mauna Kea as the TMT site is one of ______.
[A] severe criticism.
[B] passive acceptance.
[C] slight hesitancy.
[D] full approval.
Robert F. Kennedy once said that a country’s GDP measures “everything except that which makes life worthwhile.” With Britain voting to leave the European , and GDP already predicted to slow as a result, it is now a timely moment to assess what he was referring to.
The question of GDP and its usefulness has annoyed policymakers for over half a century. Many argue that it is a flawed concept. It measures things that do not matter and misses things that do. By most recent measures, the UK’s GDP has been the envy of the Western world, with record low unemployment and high growth figures. If everything was going so well, then why did over 17 million people vote for Brexit, despite the warnings about what it could do to their country’s economic prospects?
A recent annual study of countries and their ability to convert growth well-being sheds some light on that question. Across the 163 countries measured, the UK is one of the poorest performers in ensuring that economic growth is translated meaningful improvements for its citizens. Rather than just focusing on GDP, over 40 different sets of criteria from health, education and civil society engagement have been measured to get a more rounded assessment of how countries are performing.
While all of these countries face their own challenges , there are a number of consistent themes . Yes , there has been a budding economic recovery since the 2008 global crash , but in key indicators in areas such as health and education , major economies have continued to decline . Yet this isn’t the case with all countries . Some relatively poor European countries have seen huge improvements across measures including civil society , income equality and the environment.
This is a lesson that rich countries can learn : When GDP is no longer regarded as the sole measure of a country’s success, the world looks very different .
So, what Kennedy was referring to was that while GDP has been the most common method for measuring the economic activity of nations , as a measure , it is no longer enough . It does not include important factors such as environmental quality or education outcomes – all things that contribute to a person’s sense of well-being.
The sharp hit to growth predicted around the world and in the UK could lead to a decline in the everyday services we depend on for our well-being and for growth . But policymakers who refocus efforts on improving well-being rather than simply worrying about GDP figures could avoid the forecasted doom and may even see progress .
31.Robert F. Kennedy is cited because he ______.
[A]praised the UK for its GDP.
[B]identified GDP with happiness .
[C]misinterpreted the role of GDP .
[D]had a low opinion of GDP .
32.It can be inferred from Paragraph 2 that ______.
[A]the UK is reluctant to remold its economic pattern .
[B]GDP as the measure of success is widely defied in the UK .
[C]the UK will contribute less to the world economy .
[D]policymakers in the UK are paying less attention to GDP .
33.Which of the following is true about the recent annual study ?
[A]It is sponsored by 163 countries .
[B]It excludes GDP as an indicator.
[C]Its criteria are questionable .
[D]Its results are enlightening .
【解析】答案为D。细节题。根据题干信息和关键词 annual study 可以定位到第三段第一句，其中选项D的enlightening 与sheds some light on that question同义替换。故选项D为正确选项。
34.In the last two paragraphs , the author suggests that ______.
[A]the UK is preparing for an economic boom .
[B]high GDP foreshadows an economic decline .
[C]it is essential to consider factors beyond GDP .
[D]it requires caution to handle economic issues .
【解析】答案为C。细节题。从最后一段可以看出GDP不再够用了，它没有包含重要的因素。选项C中it is essential to consider factors beyond GDP正好是该句的完美改写。因此选项C是正确答案。
35.Which of the following is the best title for the text ?
[A]High GDP But Inadequate Well-being , a UK Lesson
[B]GDP Figures , a Window on Global Economic Health
[C]Rebort F. Kennedy , a Terminator of GDP
[D]Brexit, the UK’s Gateway to Well-being
【解析】答案为A。主旨题，需要通过全篇来选答案，这篇文章在开头引用了Kennedy对于GDP的负面评价，并通过英国脱欧这个案例来引出需要考虑GDP这个评价机制的好坏，中间各段在分析英国GDP表现好，但实际英国社会现状却不好，最后在倒数第二自然段指出This is a lesson that rich countries can learn. 故选项A是正确答案。
In a rare unanimous ruling, the US Supreme Court has overturned the corruption conviction of a former Virginia governor, Robert McDonnell. But it did so while holding its nose at the ethics of his conduct, which included accepting gifts such as a Rolex watch and a Ferrari automobile from a company seeking access to government.
The high court’s decision said the judge in Mr. McDonnell’s trial failed to tell a jury that it must look only at his “official acts,” or the former governor’s decisions on “specific” and “unsettled” issues related to his duties.
Merely helping a gift-giver gain access to other officials, unless done with clear intent to pressure those officials, is not corruption, the justices found.
The court did suggest that accepting favors in return for opening doors is “distasteful” and “nasty.” But under anti-bribery laws, proof must be made of concrete benefits, such as approval of a contract or regulation. Simply arranging a meeting, making a phone call, or hosting an event is not an “official act”.
The court’s ruling is legally sound in defining a kind of favoritism that is not criminal. Elected leaders must be allowed to help supporters deal with bureaucratic problems without fear of prosecution for bribery.” The basic compact underlying representative government,” wrote Chief Justice John Roberts for the court,” assumes that public officials will hear from their constituents and act on their concerns.”
But the ruling reinforces the need for citizens and their elected representatives, not the courts, to ensure equality of access to government. Officials must not be allowed to play favorites in providing information or in arranging meetings simply because an individual or group provides a campaign donation or a personal gift. This type of integrity requires well-enforced laws in government transparency, such as records of official meetings, rules on lobbying, and information about each elected leader’s source of wealth.
Favoritism in official access can fan public perceptions of corruption. But it is not always corruption. Rather officials must avoid double standards, or different types of access for average people and the wealthy. If connections can be bought, a basic premise of democratic society—that all are equal in treatment by government—is undermined. Good governance rests on an understanding of the inherent worth of each individual.
The court’s ruling is a step forward in the struggle against both corruption and official favoritism.
36. The undermined sentence (Para.1) most probably shows that the court _______.
[A] avoided defining the extent of McDonnell’s duties.
[B] made no compromise in convicting McDonnell.
[C] was contemptuous of McDonnell’s conduct.
[D] refused to comment on McDonnell’s ethics.
【解析】答案为C。根据第一段的划线句子联系文章第一句话：虽然最高法院没有判定Robert McDonnell受贿罪，但是在道德上却对他的行为嗤之以鼻。由此可以锁定选项C中的 was contemptuous of，也就是说法院其实非常轻视Robert McDonnell的行为。
37. According to Paragraph 4, an official act is deemed corruptive only if it involves _______.
[A] leaking secrets intentionally.
[B] sizable gains in the form of gifts.
[C] concrete returns for gift-givers.
[D] breaking contracts officially.
【解析】答案为B。从第四段可以知道，对腐败的定义是:只有受贿者给予了行贿者实际的好处，例如 a contract or regulation, 如果提供的不是具体的好处，仅仅只是：arranging a meeting, making a phone call, or hosting an event, 那么这种行为就不是受贿。由此可以得出答案为B。
38. The court’s ruling is based on the assumption that public officials are _______.
[A] justified in addressing the needs of their constituents.
[B] qualified to deal independently with bureaucratic issues.
[C] allowed to focus on the concerns of their supporters.
[D] exempt from conviction on the charge of favoritism.
39. Well-enforced laws in government transparency are needed to _______.
[A] awaken the conscience of officials.
[B] guarantee fair play in official access.
[C] allow for certain kinds of lobbying.
[D] inspire hopes in average people.
40. The author’s attitude toward the court’s ruling is _______.
The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order. For Questions 41-45, you are required to reorganize these paragraphs a coherent article by choosing from the list A-G to filling them the numbered box. Paragraphs B and D have been correctly placed. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
[A]The first published sketch, “A Dinner at Poplar Walk” brought tears to Dickens’s eyes when he discovered it in the pages of The Monthly Magazine. From then on his sketches ,which appeared under the pen name “Boz” in The Evening Chronicle, earned him a modest reputation.
[B]The runaway success of The Pickwick Papers, as it is generally known today, secured Dickens’s fame. There were Pickwick coats and Pickwick cigars, and the plump, spectacled hero, Samuel Pickwick, became a national figure.
[C]Soon after Sketches by Boz appeared, a publishing firm approached Dickens to write a story in monthly installments, as a backdrop for a series of woodcuts by the ten-famous artist Robert Seymour, who had originated the idea for the story. With characteristic confidence, Dickens successfully insisted that Seymour’s pictures illustrate his own story instead. After the first installment, Dickens wrote to the artist and asked him to correct a drawing Dickens felt was not faithful enough to his prose. Seymour made the change, went his backyard, and expressed his displeasure by committing suicide. Dickens and his publishers simply pressed on with a new artist. The comic novel, The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club, appeared serially in 1836 and 1837, and was first published in book form in 1837.
[D]Charles Dickens is probably the best-known and, to many people, the greatest English novelist of the 19th century. A moralist, satirist, and social reformer. Dickens crafted complex plots and striking characters that capture the panorama of English society.
[E]Soon after his father’s release from prison, Dickens got a better job as errand boy in law offices. He taught himself shorthand to get an even better job later as a court stenographer and as a reporter in Parliament. At the same time, Dickens, who had a reporter’s eye for transcribing the life around him especially anything comic or odd, submitted short sketches to obscure magazines.
[F] Dickens was born in Portsmouth, on England’s southern coast. His father was a clerk in the British navy pay office –a respectable position, but wish little social status. His paternal grandparents, a steward and a housekeeper possessed even less status, having been servants, and Dickens later concealed their background. Dicken’s mother supposedly came from a more respectable family. Yet two years before Dicken’s birth, his mother’s father was caught stealing and fled to Europe, never to return. The family’s increasing poverty forced Dickens out of school at age 12 to work in Warren’s Blacking Warehouse, a shoe-polish factory, where the other working boys mocked him as “the young gentleman.” His father was then imprisoned for debt. The humiliations of his father’s imprisonment and his labor in the blacking factory formed Dicken’s greatest wound and became his deepest secret. He could not confide them even to his wife, although they provide the unacknowledged foundation of his fiction.
[G] After Pickwick, Dickens plunged a bleaker world. In Oliver Twist, e traces an orphan’s progress from the workhouse to the criminal slums of London. Nicholas Nickleby, his next novel, combines the darkness of Oliver Twist with the sunlight of Pickwick. The popularity of these novels consolidated Dichens’ as a nationally and internationally celebrated man of letters.
D → 41. → 42. → 43. → 44. → B →45.
【答案】41.F 42.E 43.A 44.C 45.G
【解析】这篇文章讲解了狄更斯的人生历程，第一段固定，总述了狄更斯的历史地位，之后从他的出生描述到他家庭的变故，从他父亲出狱描述到他职业生涯的起步，从他的短剧描述到他的小说，最后以他最成名的作品雾都孤儿收尾。故而正确顺序为：D → 41.F→ 42.E→ 43.A→ 44.C→ B →45.G。
Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments Chinese. Your translation should be written neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
The growth of the use of English as the world`s primary language for international communication has obviously been continuing for several decades.(46)But even as the number of English speakers expands further there are signs that the global predominance of the language may fade within the foreseeable future.
Complex international, economic, technological and culture change could start to diminish the leading position of English as the language of the world market, and UK interests which enjoy advantage from the breath of English usage would consequently face new pressures. Those realistic possibilities are highlighted in the study presented by David Graddol. (47)His analysis should therefore end any self-contentedness among those who may believe that the global position of English is so stable that the young generation of the United Kingdom do not need additional language capabilities.
David Graddol concludes that monoglot English graduates face a bleak economic future as qualified multilingual youngsters from other countries are proving to have a competitive advantage over their British counterparts in global companies and organizations. Alongside that,(48)many countries are introducing English the primary-school curriculum but British schoolchildren and students do not appear to be gaining greater encouragement to achieve fluency in other languages. If left to themselves, such trends will diminish the relative strength of the English language in international education markets as the demand for educational resources in languages, such as Spanish ,Arabic or Mandarin grows and international business process outsourcing in other language such as Japanese, French and German, spreads.
(49)The changes identified by David Graddol all present clear and major challenges to UK`s providers of English language teaching to people of other countries and to broader education business sectors. The English language teaching sector directly earns nearly &1.3 billion for the UK in invisible exports and our other education related explores earn up to &10 billion a year more. As the international education market expands, the recent slowdown in the number of international students studying in the main English-speaking countries is likely to continue, especially if there are no effective strategic policies to prevent such slippage.
The anticipation of possible shifts in demand provided by this study is significant:(50) It gives a basis to all organization which seek to promote the learning and very different operating environment.That is a necessary and practical approach. In this as in much else, those who wish to influence the future must prepare for it.
Section III Writing
You are to write an email to James Cook , a newly-arrived Australian professor , recommending some tourist attractions in your city . Please give reasons for your recommendation .
You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET .
Do not sign your own name at the end of the email. Use “Li Ming” instead.
Do not write the address . (10 points)
I am writing this letter to recommend you some famous attractions of this city. I have lived here since 1990 and have been familiar with every corner of our city.
Firstly, considering that you are the fresh visitor to our city, so it is advisable for you to have a look upon the City’s Museum, which is beneficial for quickly learning the comprehensive perspective, such as the development of this city, and its specific culture. What’s more, another tourist site deserving your attention is our special and sophisticated buildings in the center of the city, since these buildings are telling residents the gradual changing habits and lifestyles, which are helpful to assimilate yourself this city.
I do hope that you would find these tourist attractions worthy of you visit and appreciation.
Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following pictures. In your essay , you should
1)describe the pictures briefly,
2)interpret the meaning , and
3)give your comments.
You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET.( 20 points )
Here are two pictures, both interesting but with sharply contrasted implication. As is vividly depicted in the first photo, a man sitting in sofa looking at his bookshelves and satisfied with the quantity, which successfully arouses our curiosity. On the contrary, the second picture describes that another teenager set his aim at complete 20 pieces books reading, finally completing the contrast is supposed to be given further analysis.
With the increasing pace of modern life, perhaps no change has characterized the past decade more dramatically than wide spread of reading. Naturally, it brings us both advantages and disadvantages. As for my part, the latter outweighs its former. On the top of list is that people became flippancy without reading. In addition, there is the other point that no one can ignore. It is universally admitted that a nation will recede with reading. No other case can better illustrate the consequences of what I have discussed than the picture above.
According to the analysis above, it is advisable for us to take steps to maximize its positive effects and minimize the disadvantage. Of all the steps, mass media tends to function essentially in the job. Only in this way can we make the best of the value of reading an embrace a bright future.
- 2022西方经济学考研|高鸿业版: LM曲线
- 2022西方经济学考研|高鸿业版: 利息率的决定